In the Skeena Ranges of northwestern British Columbia, the Groundhog coalﬁeld defines an ovoid (30 x 80 km) area extending southeastwards from the headwaters of the Klappan and Little Klappan rivers to Groundhog Mountain. Coal occurs in several units of the Bowser Lake Group, which consists of Jurassic and early Cretaceous marine and non-marine strata deposited in Bowser Basin. The Groundhog coalfield contains the only significant occurrences of anthracite in Canada. Anthracite is relatively rare, making up about 1% of all coals globally. Of all coals, anthracite has the highest heat content per unit weight. The most significant market for anthracite is as PCI (pulverized coal injection) coal, which is used in making steel.
April 22, 2016
Open File 2016-5 - Geometry and valley-fill stratigraphic framework for aquifers in the Groundbirch paleovalley assessed through shallow seismic and ground-based electromagnetic
Adrian S. Hickin, Melvyn E. Best and André Pugin
Paleovalleys are significant sources of groundwater in the South Peace River region. To better understand groundwater availability it is necessary to determine the thickness, lateral extent, and connectivity of Quaternary sediments filling these paleovalleys. Direct observations of subsurface lithologic units (through sediment coring) combined with ground-based electromagnetic (EM) and shallow reflection seismic surveys document the geometry of the Groundbirch paleovalley and establishes the three-dimensional configuration of its sediment fill. The combined data suggest that the Groundbirch paleovalley is 3-4 km wide at its top and trends east-west. Based mainly on seismic velocity data, the paleovalley may plunge to the west. Although the EM and seismic data are only effective in the upper 150 m, our interpretation of the seismic data suggests that the paleovalley may extend to depths of >350 m, an interpretation that can be tested by drilling. The stratigraphy of the valley fill includes advance phase glaciolacustrine sediments (glacial Lake Mathews), ice-contact glacial sediments (Late Wisconsinan glaciation), and retreat phase glaciolacustrine sediments (glacial Lake Peace). Gravels and sands deposited during ice margin advance and retreat have the highest potential to host significant aquifers.
April 21, 2016
Recent journal and conference publications by British Columbia Geological Survey geoscientists
Davis, W.J., Ootes, L., Newton, L., Jackson, V.A., and Stern, R., 2015. Characterization of the Paleoproterozoic Hottah terrane, Wopmay Orogen using multi-isotopic (U-Pb, Hf and O) detrital zircon analyses: An evaluation of linkages to northwest Laurentian Paleoproterozoic domains. Precambrian Research, 269, 296-310.
Fajber, R., Simandl, G.J., and Luck, P., 2015. Exploration for carbonatite-hosted niobium-tantalum deposits using biogeochemical methods (orientation survey), Blue River Area, British Columbia, Canada. In: Lasemi, Z., (Ed.), Proceedings of the 47th Forum on the Geology of Industrial Minerals, May 15-17, 2011, Champaign, Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey, Circular 587. https://www.isgs.illinois.edu/sites/isgs/files/files/publications/47th-Forum-Fajber.pdf
Hickin, A.S., Lian, O.B., and Levson. V.M., 2016. Coalescence of late Wisconsinan Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets east of the Rocky Mountain Foothills in the Dawson Creek region, Northeast British Columbia, Canada. Quaternary Research, DOI: 10.1016/j.yqres.2016.02.005 (in press).
Mackay, D.A.R., Simandl, G.J., Ma, W., Redfearn, M., and Gravel, J., 2016. Indicator mineral-based exploration for carbonatites and related specialty metal deposits– A QEMSCAN® orientation survey, British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 165, 159-173. Access to article is valid until May 21, 2016 at http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Sofr1LQnuDi1a.
Mao, M., Rukhlov, A.S., Rowins, S.M., Spence, J., and Coogan, L.A., 2016, Apatite trace-element compositions: A robust new tool for mineral exploration. Economic Geology, (in press).
Manor, M.J., Scoates, J.S., Nixon, G.T., and Ames, D.E., 2016. The Giant Mascot Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, southwestern British Columbia: mineralized conduits and sulphide saturation mechanisms in a convergent margin tectonic setting. Economic Geology, 111, 57-87.
Ootes, L., Davis, W.J., Jackson, V.A., and van Breemen, O., 2015. Chronostratigraphy of the Hottah terrane and Great Bear magmatic zone of Wopmay orogen, Canada, and exploration of a terrane translation model. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 52, 1062-1092.
Paradis, S., Simandl, G.J., Keevil, H., and Raudsepp, M., 2016. Carbonate-Hosted Nonsulfide Pb-Zn Deposits of the Quesnel Lake District, British Columbia, Canada. Economic Geology, 111, 179-198.
Simandl, G.J., and Neetz, M., 2016. Industrial minerals in British Columbia. Industrial Minerals, London, March 2016, 26-28.
Simandl, G.J., Mackay, D.A.R., Ma, X., Luck, P., Gravel, J., Grcic, B., and Redfearn, M., 2015. Direct and indirect indicator minerals in exploration for carbonatite and related ore deposits — an orientation survey, British Columbia, Canada. In: Application of Indicator Mineral Methods to Mineral Exploration, 27th International Applied Geochemistry Symposium, April 20-24, 2015, Tucson, Arizona. Association of Applied Geochemists, Short course SC02, 7p.
Trofanenko, J., Williams-Jones, A.E., Simandl, G.J., and Migdisov, A.A., 2016. The nature and origin of the REE mineralization in the Wicheeda carbonatite, British Columbia, Canada. Economic Geology, 111, 199-223.
Williamson, N., Ootes, L., Rainbird, R., and Bédard, J., and Cousens, B., 2016, Initiation and early evolution of a continental flood basalt province preserved in the 720 Ma Natkusiak Formation, Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic. Bulletin of Volcanology, 78, 1-19.